Organic LED

Organic-Light Emitting Diodes – are a new display technology that offers many benefits overtop of older LCD or Plasma display technology. Two layers of thin organic film (and emissive layer and a conductive layer) are placed between two conductors and when electrical current is passed through it bright light is emitted [1]. O-LED can be used in a wide variety of applications including stationary and mobile displays, lighting panels and even flexible display options. Currently this technology is being explored by many companies including; Universal Displays, Samsung, Sony, Toshiba, and many more.

Types of OLED

There are many types of OLED screens being created, a brief synopsis of the varieties are:

- Passive Matrix OLED or PMOLED use long strips of anode and cathode strips laid perpendicular to each other on opposing sides of the Organic layers. PMOLED’s are cheaper to create than others but consume more power than other types of OLED and do not have a high enough refresh rate to be used in video, they are most useful for smaller displays such as MP3 players or cell phones [2].

- Active-matrix OLED’S (AMOLED) use full layers of anode and cathode on wither side of the organic layers rather than the strips used in PMOLED. AMOLED use less power than PMOLED screens and can be made larger, they also have a high enough refresh rate to be used in video applications [2]. AMOLED’s are popular for use in monitors, smartphones and other high definition displays.

- Transparent OLED’S are printed on a transparent substrate, when there is no electrical charge running through them they are near to as transparent as the original substrate. [2]

- Foldable OLED’s are made with very flexible metal or plastic and have greatly increased durability. They have the potential to be attached to a variety of different objects such as clothing allowing for an integrated display [2].

- White OLED’s emit a much brighter white light, they are not used so much for displays as they are for lighting possibilities. Because they can be manufactured in large sheets, use less energy and have all the properties of incandescent light the possibility exists that they could replace fluorescent lighting in buildings [2].

Advancements: - One of the largest problems with OLED displays has been the lifetime of the display, in particular the lifetime of the blue light emitter, which had a much shorter lifespan than the rest of the OLED itself, however researchers say that they have improved the lifespan to approx. 20,000 hrs or about 6 years TV time [3].

- Another article goes into detail to describe another method being used to improve on the lifetime of the blue emitted light. They have discovered that the deep blue light used is only used in very extreme circumstances, whereas most of the time it was possible to use a lighter blue emmiter. This means that there would be 4 light emitting colours to a OLED, red, green, deep blue and light blue [4]

Advantages of O-LED over current technology include: - Lower energy Consumption

- Does not require backlighting, emits its own light

- Flexible, Currently Organic LED’s printed on plastic and be flexed and rolled

- Durability - Easier to produce than LCD, can be produced in larger sizes easier. [2] [3]

Disadvantages of OLED:

OLED displays are easily damaged by water

The lifetime of a OLED screen is still a concern in regards to the blue film, however current advancements are working towards correcting this (see above)

The process for manufacturing OLED is still more expensive than LCD manufacturing. [2][3]

OLED's and Collaboration

- On the topic of collaboration OLED offers a number of possibilities, to begin with it greatly increases the durability and capabilities of mobile devices suchas smart phones, regular phones and mobile computers such as tablets and laptops.

- It also offers options for new types of mobile tech, the flexibility would allow for folding, rolling and many other options.

- One websites mentions the posibbility of "Smart clothes", clothing with a OLED screen sewn into it to provide a display. This type of thing could be used for numerous other applications beyond clothing. [2]

- The possibility has also been put forward that Transparent OLED's in car windsheilds would make for a heads up display to aid in driving and increase safety. The same thought has been put forward that this would actuallybe detriment to drivers as further distractions when driving could increase the likelihood of accidents. Video - [5]

References [1] “OLED Introduction and basic OLED Information,” 2011 [Online] Available: Accessed: Nov 30th 2011 [2] Craig Freudenrich Ph.D. “HowStuffWorks – OLED Types,”, [Online] Available Accessed: Nov 30th 2011 [3] Jeremy N.A. Matthews “Are Organic LED’s ready for the Big Screen?” Physics Today, vol 61, no 11, pp26-27, 2008 [Online] Available EBSCOhost: Accessed: Nov 13th 2011. [4] Electronics Weekly, “Untitled”, Electronics Weekly, Issue 2448, pp 6 [Online] Available: EBSCOhost: Accessed: Nov 13th 2011. [5]Alihuab “Sony Flexible Full Colour Paper Screen - YouTube”, Jul 1, 2077 [Online] Available: Accessed: Nov 30th 2011

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